The Language

Javascript is an object oriented language which started life as an embedded scripting language within a web browser. It was developed first by Netscape (and called LiveScript) for use in the Navigator browser, had it's name changed when Sun Microsystems became involved and was soon copied by Microsoft (as JScript). The language was later standardised by ECMA as ECMAScript which is perhaps the 'proper' name of the language but everyone calls it Javascript.

The name Javascript is confusing (perhaps by design) because the language is not related to Java and is in fact quite a different kind of language. The syntax is somewhat similar in that they both share the core syntax of C-like languages, but the design philosophy behind them is very different and they are useful for different tasks.

Javascript is a dynamically typed language, meaning that you don't declare the types of variables (just like Python). A variable can hold any type of data and it's up to the programmer to ensure that they know what the type of a variable is to avoid errors. Errors such as trying to add an array to an integer will be discovered only at run-time; whereas in a statically typed language like Java they would be found at compile time. Dynamically typed languages are generally thought to be easier for non-expert programmers to learn and lend themselves to quick scripts to solve specific problems. Writing larger applications and ensuring code is bug-free can be more difficult unless programmers are very careful.

Javascript is an object oriented language, but unlike Python or Java, objects in Javascript are not based on predefined class definitions. Instead they are built around the idea of prototypes (objects inherit from other prototype objects) and new fields and methods can be added at run-time as needed. Objects can be thought of as general purpose containers with slots which can hold either data of any type or functions which act like methods. This is a bit different to the way of thinking in Java and Python but has some interesting consequences that are exploited in the way that Javascript programs are written.

The most common environment to run Javascript code is the web browser. All modern web browsers come with a Javascript execution component that will run code embedded in web pages that are being viewed. However, in recent years, the use of Javascript as a server side language is becoming more common. The node.js project provides a runtime environment for Javascript that does not rely on a browser and can be used to write general purpose scripts including server-side web applications. The popularity of Javascript outside the browser can perhaps be attributed to the rise of the front-end developer who knows Javascript and therefore wants to use it to perform scripting and write server-side code. The node.js eco-system is now very well established and any practicing web developer needs to have some familiarity with Node and the NPM package manager that is used to distribute Javascript software.

When Javascript is running in the web browser, the main resource that a Javascript program has access to is the data structure corresponding to the HTML page currently being viewed. Javascript programs are able to interact with this data structure, querying it and updating it and so affect the content that is being viewed by the user. Javascript can also respond to events that occur in the browser, such as a user moving the mouse over a particular element, clicking on a link or entering text into a form. In this way, Javascript is used to enhance the user experience and build interactive applications within the web browser.

These chapter might one day expand to be a proper Javascript tutorial but at the moment the goal is just to give a flavour of the language. There are lots of resources on the net for learning about Javascript but if you are already a programmer, the best way is to try to write some code and use reference materials and code examples to work things out.

Running Javascript in the Browser

To associate JavaScript code with a web page, the code is embedded in the page or linked to with <script></script> tags.

We can embed the script directly:

  <script language="Javascript">
    // your script goes here
    alert('Hello World')

This tag can go anywhere in the HTML page and there can be many script tags in one page. The code is written directly inside the tag so this is only really suitable for short fragments of code. In practice, you would almost never use this way of embedding Javascript in a real application. Instead you would refer to an external script:

  <script src="/static/sample.js">

Either of these methods of including Javascript has the same effect, the code is loaded and executed directly. A script tag can be placed at any point in the page, either in the head or body. The code is able to modify the current page up to that point via the DOM (see below) and it can insert content into the current page with document.write.

For this reason, whenever a <script> tag is seen, the rendering of the HTML page is halted while the script is executed and then resumed when it is done. This can slow down the loading of a page if there are many scripts or if running some scripts takes a long time. For this reason it is common to put all script tags that load external Javascript at the end of the body section of the HTML page. In this way, the page is fully loaded before the Javascript is downloaded and executed. (Note that there are alternatives to this but that browser support is still not 100% and so they can't be relied on).

Elements of Javascript

This text does not attempt to teach you everything about the Javascript language. The goal is to point out some important features and show you how to achieve some common tasks with Javascript. You should refer to other sources to learn the language itself. E.g. MDN.


Functions can be defined in Javascript much like any other procedural language:

function write_times(message, count) {
  for (var j=0; j<count; j++) {

write_times('hello', 10)

Note that the input arguments are not typed as they would be in Java or C. The final line shows the newly defined function in use.

This function also illustrates the use of the for loop which has the same syntax as in C++ or Java with the exception of the variable declaration using var instead of a type specifier.

Functions in Javascript can also be anonymous - defined without a name. Also, since functions are just values in the program (in the same way as in Python) they can be assigned to variables. So we can achieve the same as the above with the following code:

var write_times = function (message, count) {
    for (var j=0; j<count; j++) {

This might seem a little odd but there are some common uses of this idiom in Javascript so it is important to understand it.

Debugging Output

Since your Javascript program is running in the web browser, we need a way to log messages so that we can see them for debugging or other purposes. In Python we would insert a print statement in code. In Javascript we use console.log and the output appears in the browser Javascript console which can be found via the browser developer tools.

All modern browsers also have a very good interactive debugger that can be used to step through your code and place breakpoints. Get to know your developer tools!

Variables and Scope

Variables in Javascript should be introduced with the var keyword.
This is optional when creating a variable - if it isn't present, Javascript will look for an existing variable in the current scope (eg. within a function) and if it does not find it, look in the next level until it gets to global scope - if it never finds a variable of that name it will be created in global scope. So, without the var keyword you are effectively using global variables inside your functions. Best practice is to always use var to make a new variable.

One place you might forget to use var is in a for loop:

function counter() {
    for(i = 0; i<10; i++) {

While this code will work ok, it is silently creating or referring to a global variable i as the loop counter. Since Javascript can run asynchronously (many threads at once) it is possible that some other function will also be modifying i at the same time, causing this loop to behave oddly. So, always use var in writing your for loop:

function counter() {
    for(var i = 0; i<10; i++) {

Scope can sometimes be confusing in Javascript and there is a real danger of bugs caused by conflicting global variable and function names if two Javascript files are loaded that both create names in global scope. If two files define a function called render, then the file that is loaded last will overwrite the first definition. Even more problematic can be code that creates global variables -- if two functions rely on the same global variable that could result in very subtle bugs that are hard to track down.

To avoid this kind of problem, it is common to use one of a number of methods to avoid using global scope. These are all ways of working around the fact that Javascript does not provide an official way to define modules that do not clash with each other. In Python for example we can define functions inside one file (module) and we need to import these into another module to use them. In Javascript, every file that is loaded comes into the global namespace.

One method, which we will use in this text, is to enclose code in an anonymous function that is immediately called. Here's an example:

(function() {
    var name = 'Steve';

    function sayhello(who) {
        console.log("Hello" + who);

This code defines an anonymous function with no arguments (function() {...}). The body of the function is the code we want to run, it defines a variable and a function and then calls the function which will output 'Hello Steve' on the browser console. Immediately after defining the function we call it - notice the parentheses right after the code block (function() {...})(). Since we call the function, the body of code inside will be executed but the variable and function we defined will only exist within the function, not in the global scope. So, the overall effect of this is to allow us to define and use some variables and functions without polluting the global scope and causing possible name collisions.

You might also see variations on this where the function is passed the window and even the document objects as a parameter:

(function(window) {
    /* your code here */
    window.addEventListener("click", someEventHandler)

This looks very odd since the only effect of passing the window object into the function is to make window a local variable in the function, any code would work just as well if it was global. The reason for this construct is two-fold. Firstly, accessing local variables is very slightly faster than accessing global ones, so if you referenced window a lot in this code, it would be a bit faster to do so. Secondly, a common practice is to 'minify' Javascript code by replacing variable names with shorter ones. This code can then be compressed by renaming window to a and the whole code block will be that little bit shorter. These are good reasons but obscure, so in this text I'll leave out any parameters for the anonymous function.

So once again the pattern is:

(function() {
    // your code here

Note that we can't use this if we want to define functions that are to be used by other code blocks. In that case we sometimes do want to have functions defined in global scope. However, there are alternatives which we will see later in some examples.

Arrays and Strings

Strings in Javascript are similar to those in Python. Both single and double quotes can be used (but Python's triple quote notation is not supported). They can contain unicode characters with special symbols if you wish.

var s1 = "Hello World!"
var s2 = 'Hello World!'
var s3 = 'Hola món!'
var s4 = 'မင်္ဂလာပါကမ္ဘာလောက'

Strings are objects and can be operated on with methods (just like Python) and then can be subscripted with the square bracket notation.

// methods do not modify the string 
// just say hello
console.log(s1.substr(0, 5))
// note that length is a property, not a function

Here is the definition of an array of strings in Javascript:

var months = ['January','February',

This is just a different syntax for the same thing. Arrays in Javascript are just the same as those in most other languages (they're called lists in Python); they can be indexed with a number starting from zero and they have various methods to manipulate the contents.

Arrays in Javascript (just like Python but not like Java) can contain different typed data. So I can have an array that contains both numbers and strings.

Note that arrays in Javascript are objects that have methods, just like in Python. So I can operate on an array using these methods:

// get the name of the month from a month number
function getMonth(N) {
    return months[N+1]

// confuse things by reversing the array - note that this modifies it in place
// and sort it in place too
// remove the last element
var last = months.pop()
// and the first
var first = months.shift()
// get the first three remaining months
var three = months.slice(0, 3)

Strings can be concatenated using the + operator:

var newstring = s1 + 'How are you today!'

Javascript Objects

Like Python, Java and C++, Javascript is an object oriented language but the way that objects work in Javascript is very different from any of those languages.

Javascript objects are prototype based. So, rather than defining a class in source code and then creating instances of that class we just create an object and then add data and methods to it. Javascript objects can change at run time, getting new properties and new methods. Here's an example:

var myCar = new Object()
myCar.make = 'Holden'
myCar.model = 'Astra'
myCar.year = 2009
myCar.describe = function() {
    return 'Car: ' + this.make + ', ' + this.model + ', ' + this.year

The first line creates a new instance of Object which is the top of the class hierarchy in Javascript (everything is an Object). The remaining lines add three properties and a method describe that returns a description of the car.

Note that the method uses the variable name this to refer to the instance (like self in Python). Properties can be accessed using the dot notation myCar.year, or alternately using square brackets myCar['year']. Note that this is then quite similar to a Python dictionary - a collection of properties and values - and in fact objects in Javascript can be thought of as a kind of associative array of keys and values, some of which can be functions. This is more obvious if we use an alternate syntax for making the object:

var myCar = {
    make: 'Holden',
    model: 'Astra',
    year: 2009,
    describe: function() {
            return 'Car: ' + this.make + ', ' + this.model + ', ' + this.year

This looks very similar to a Python dictionary with the exception that property names (keys) don't need to be in quotes and you can't have a comma after the last key-value pair.

This way of working with objects is not going to be the most useful -- there needs to be a way to define methods for all cars, rather than doing it one car at a time. Javascript manages this via prototypes. A prototype is an object that is used as a kind of template for making new objects. The way that a prototype is defined looks odd to anyone familiar with other object oriented languages. Here's an example:

function Car(make, model, year) {
    this.make = make
    this.model = model
    this.year = year

Car.prototype.display = function() {
    return 'Car: ' + this.make + ', ' + this.model + ', ' + this.year

// create a new car
myCar = new Car("Holden", "Astra", 2009)
// call the display method

The first part of this definition is a function called Car that acts as the constructor for the object. This is just a regular function, the difference is how it is used. To create a new instance of this prototype we use the new keyword and call the constructor function. This has the effect of creating the new object and making it available to the function via the variable this. The constructor in this case sets the object properties.

The second part of the definition is to assign a function to the property Car.prototype.display. Car.prototype is an object itself that is the prototype for all cars. Any methods that are defined on this object will be available to all instances of Car.

Built In Objects

Javascript comes with a large collection of built in object prototypes that you can make use of in your code. Consult a good reference to get a list of all of them. You'll see many of these in examples in later parts of this text. One useful example is the Date prototype:

var today = new Date();
var birthday = new Date("Dec 25, 1993")
//show the date
// show the date in GMT timezone

Javascript Gotchas

Javascript is an odd language, there are many things about it that don't seem to make sense if you are used to other languages and can be the source of bugs. There are some useful guides to a number of non-obvious features:

I'll go over a few of these here.

Equality Testing

The first issue relates to comparison operators. Javascript has both double and triple equals operators to compare whether two values are the same but these behave quite differently. The double equals operator == will try as hard as it can to make the values be equal by converting the type of a value if necessary. So comparing the string "1" to the integer 1 will succeed:

var x = 1
if (x == "1") {
    console.log("They are the same!")

This can be exactly what you want but it can also be a source of bugs when two things you thought would be different end up being the same. If you use the triple equal operator === the type coercion will not happen and the comparison will succeed only if the values really are the same. So this code will print the message in the else clause:

var x = 1
if (x === "1") {
    console.log("The are the same")
} else {
    console.log("Not the same because of triple equals!")

Since the odd behaviour of double equals can be a source of bugs, best practice in Javascript is to always use triple equals when comparing values.

Two kinds of nothing

Javascript has two special values that sort of mean nothing. Python for example has the special value None and Java has null, these are used to indicate when a variable holds nothing or a function returns no value. Javascript has the special value null for this purpose and it has more or less the same meaning. However, Javascript also has the special value undefined which is the result of evaluating a variable that is undefined. In other languages this would throw an error, but Javascript just returns this special value.

Implicit conversion

Similar to the double equals comparison, there are other times when Javascript converts the type of values without being asked. One of these is with boolean tests. The following values will convert implicitly to false:

  • undefined or null
  • false
  • Numbers +0, -0 and NaN (Not a Number - eg. Math.sqrt(-1))
  • the empty string ''

everything else is considered to be true. So I can use these values directly in an if statement:

var x = ''
if (x) {
    /* this will not run because '' is false */

Another case that can trip you up is the implicit conversion of types to strings. If I write the following:

x = '5'  /* a string */
console.log( x + 1 )

the output will be 51 rather than 6 because the number 1 was converted to a string and we then get a string concatenation operation '5' + '1' rather than an addition.


Javascript code can include semi-colons at the end of statements:

x = '5';
console.log( x + 1 );

however, the semi-colon is optional and can be left out in almost all cases. One place it is required is if you want to include two statements on one line:

x = '5'; console.log( x + 1 );

For the most part then you can write Javscript with no semi-colons and all will be well. There are though some obscure cases when a missing semi-colon might get you in trouble.


There is a lot more to Javascript than this chapter has covered. You should refer to other sources to learn the details of the language. What I've tried to do here is to point out some highlights and points of difference with other languages that you might be familiar with. The goal of this text is to give one view of how Javascript is used in developing modern web applications. Most of the important detail is in how it is used and how the application works in the browser.

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