Deploying Python Applications

This chapter will discuss how Python based web applications can be deployed on Virtual Server infrastructure. This is a common mode of deployment but also serves as a way of introducing virtualisation, working with Linux and configuration of web servers.

Virtual Machines

Virtualisation refers to the creation of multiple virtual computers running on one piece of hardware. One way to understand this is to think of the Virtual Machine as a software emulation of a real CPU, memory and disk running on another computer; for example, an Intel x86 based computer could simulate an old Nintendo GameBoy to run games for that platform. If the machine being emulated has the same architecture as the one it is running on then the task should be easier. The CPU instructions for the emulated machine translate directly to those for the host machine. This is now such a common and desirable thing to do that the CPU itself has support for running one or more virtual CPUs at the same time and this is then supported by the operating system with various kinds of support for running virtual machines efficiently. Importantly, the Virtual Machine is isolated from the host machine so that applications running on it cannot access host system resources and two VMs running on the same host cannot interfere with each other.

All of the major operating systems (Windows, Mac, Linux) support running virtual machines as a core part of the services that they provide. However, to run a VM, we need an application that can coordinate the services that are required. There are a number of products that do this: in the commercial space VMWare is a major player and there are a few Open Source options, the most widely used of which is VirtualBox which is now owned by Oracle. These applications do the job of managing all of the system resources and providing the bridge between the virtual machine and the host; for example, they can manage the network connection so that the VM can connect to the Internet via the host or be isolated from it. In this chapter we'll discuss examples with VirtualBox, but most should also work under other VM applications.

VirtualBox is a desktop application that coordinates the creation and running of virtual machines. It has versions for all major operating systems that run on the x86 and AMD64/Intel64 architectures. When you create a VM with VirtualBox you get a virtual computer that will start up just like a real one. When it is first created, there is no operating system installed, so the first task is to select a target operating system and install it into the VM. While it is possible to install Windows or MacOS into the VM (if you have the appropriate licence) we will concentrate on the Linux operating system. I won't go into the detail of the process of installation here - there are many guides available online. Once an operating system is installed, the virtual machine can be started and runs like a real computer, except that all parts of it are emulated on the host machine. The display of the VM is shown in a window on the desktop of the host; the mouse and keyboard from the host are routed to the VM when the window is active.

A configured VM in VirtualBox is stored as two separate files. The first is the .vbox file that contains the configuration of the machine, the second has the extension .vdi and is a disk image that contains the data that is stored on the virtual hard-drive for the VM. Since these are just files on the host system, they can be copied and shared. This makes it possible for me to create a VM image with a particular configuration and then publish it so that others can use the same configuration. This turns out to be a very useful way of distributing demonstration or development versions of some software packages since one of the big issues with complex software is getting it to run in the wide variety of environments that are out in the real world. Distributing a VM image means that you can install and test the software in a known environment and publish that for your users to test or use as a development environment.

Since distributing VM images is so easy there are many sites around the web that offer a range of pre-built images for download. Of course one of the issues with this is the possibility that the image you download may have some mal-ware installed alongside the legitimate software that it advertises. For this reason you should be careful about downloading pre-built images unless you can be sure that the source is legitimate. The safest option is always to make a new VM and install an operating system obtained from a trusted source.

Screenshot of a running VirtualBox VM

Screenshot of VirtualBox running a Linux VM

When we start up a VM having installed the Linux operating system, VirtualBox presents us with a window that simulates the screen of the machine. Since we've installed a basic version of the operating system, this screen is just an old fashioned character based console - no window system or fancy user interface. Of course it is possible to install a window system (X Windows for Linux) on the VM; VirtualBox would then show us this running on an emulated graphics card inside the window on the desktop. However, our interest in using VMs is related to running web servers so window-based user interfaces are not an important part of the system. Web servers are always remote systems - even if they are in your organisation they will be downstairs in the machine room - so we need to interact with them remotely. This means that we need to learn about the command line and how to control a computer without a mouse or visual user interface.

Working with a Linux VM

In this discussion I will assume that we are working with a version of the Ubuntu Linux operating system. Ubuntu is a variant of the Debian version of Linux; there are many other versions since Linux is really just the name of the OS kernel and this needs to be packaged with other software to make a full Operating System. Versions differ in the way that they are configured and the way that new packages are installed.

As discussed above, when we run a VM in VirtualBox we see a console where we can login (the login name and password are set during the installation of the OS, if you downloaded an image they should be supplied in the documentation for the image). Once logged in we see the command prompt (in my case webdev@ubuntu-webdev:~$) and the system is waiting for us to enter a command. This is a typical prompt on Ubuntu that contains information about who you are (webdev), the machine you are logged into (ubuntu-webdev) and your current working directory (~ which is your home directory). The $ character at the end is just a traditional prompt character. This is described as the shell - that is, the program that prints the prompt and accepts your command input is called the shell. By default it will be a program called bash which stands for Bourne Again Shell (just a Unix geek joke).

The main job of the shell from our point of view is to allow us to run programs on the VM. In general you enter the name of a program and hit return and it will be run. Arguments can be passed to the program. Here's a simple example with the ls command that lists the files under a directory (a directory is the linux term for what is normally called a folder in Windows systems).

webdev@ubuntu-webdev:~$ ls /usr
bin   games  include  lib  local  sbin  share src
webdev@ubuntu-webdev:~$ ls -l /home
drwxr-xr-x 3 webdev webdev 4096 Aug 28 2015 webdev

In this example I've called the ls command with a single argument which is the name of a directory (folder) on the machine. The response is a printout of the names of the contents of that directory. In the second example I've added the -l flag or option which ls interprets as asking for a long-form listing of the contents. In this case I've listed the /home directory which contains one entry; the details on that line correspond to the permissions on the sub-directory, who owns it, when it last changed and finally its name. Don't worry about interpreting this just now, the main point is to illustrate running programs by typing their name with options and arguments on the command line.

There is a lot to learn about the Linux shell, it can do a lot (it is in fact a programming language in itself, you can write scripts in bash). There is also a lot to learn about the standard commands (programs) that are available on a Linux system - for example, programs to find things in files, find files in the filesystem, sorting data, doing arithmetic etc. I can't go into this here but would refer you to resources such as or The Command Line Crash Course. Note that you can use your newly acquired shell skills on Windows and Mac systems too. MacOS is based on Unix and every Mac has a Terminal program installed that let's you interact with the command line. It is possible to install a Bash shell on Windows and soon bash will be integrated into the Windows Powershell for all Windows 10 users.

Creating a Web Server

To turn our VM into a web server we need to install the relevant software and then configure the VM so that we can connect to it from a web browser on the host machine.

For this example we'll use the nginx web server (pronounced 'engine x') since it is a very widespread modern server that is a good choice for running Python based web applications. You may have also heard of the Apache web server which is the most widely deployed server on the web. For our purposes these are very similar but nginx wins out based on the simplicity of its configuration and suitability for Python applications. However, as a web developer you should learn about both (and other server options).

Installing software on the Ubuntu Linux system is very straighforward as long as the application you want has been packaged for Ubuntu and is present in the software catalogue. Ubuntu uses the program apt-get to install and remove software. This program is able to search an online catalogue for the application you want, download it and install it ready to run.

Since the package I want to install is nginx I can go ahead and enter the command to install it using apt-get:

$ apt-get install nginx
E: Could not open lock file /var/lib/dpkg/lock - open (13: Permission denied)
E: Unable to lock the administration directory (/var/lib/dpkg/), are you root?

Note that I'll use the shorter $ prompt in examples from now on.

apt-get is also used to keep your system up to date and install new versions of packages if they have been released. You can run one command to update the list of packages the system knows about:

$ sudo apt-get update

This should display a long list of status messages as it checks against various online repositories for the latest versions of software. It is sometimes necessary to do this before you can install any new software, so if installing nginx fails, try doing this and then re-running the nginx install.

To update the system to the latest versions of all installed programs enter:

$ sudo apt-get upgrade

This will find which programs need updating, show you a list and ask if you want to proceed. If you say yes, it will download the new versions and install them in place of the old ones. If you are running a server that is exposed to the Internet then it is very important that you do this regularly to avoid security issues.

The result is an error message saying I don't have permission to do this. The reason is that on a Linux system, a regular user doesn't have permission to read and write system files. There is a special user called 'root' (or the superuser) who is allowed to do this. This protects the system from accidental or malicious damage. To actually install software I need to login as the root user rather than webdev. I could log out and log in again as root, but since it is quite common to want to run commands as the root user, there is a short cut via the sudo (superuser do) command:

$ sudo apt-get install nginx
[sudo] password for webdev:

The result here is that we are prompted for a password, if that matches ok then the command is run as root and the package is installed. You will be asked if you want to install various other applications that nginx requires to run, you can just hit return to accept the default response which is Y (yes).

If all goes well, you will now have nginx installed on your virtual machine. The installation process also makes sure that the server is running (and that it will re-start whenever you re-start your VM). By default, it will listen for requests on the default port 80 and serve up a single static page that has been installed along with the software. However, since we don't have a web browser on the VM, we can't test it...or can we?

In fact we can test it with a few different tools that are installed by default in our VM. The easiest is probably curl which is a command line tool to retrieve URLs. Since the server is running on the local machine using port 80, the URL for the main page will be http://localhost/. So, to get the page we enter:

$ curl http://localhost/
<!DOCTYPE html>
<title>Welcome to nginx!</title>
    body {
        width: 35em;
        margin: 0 auto;
        font-family: Tahoma, Verdana, Arial, sans-serif;
<h1>Welcome to nginx!</h1>
<p>If you see this page, the nginx web server is successfully installed and
working. Further configuration is required.</p>

<p>For online documentation and support please refer to
<a href=""></a>.<br/>
Commercial support is available at
<a href=""></a>.</p>

<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>

The sudo command is an all powerful tool - take care when using it!

XKCD sudo cartoon Source: XKCD

So in my case it is working; nginx has served up the test page included in the distribution. If you're trying this and it did not work then a number of things could be the cause of the problem. Firstly, did you see any error messages when you installed nginx - if so read these carefully and try to work out what the issue is. Note the comment above about running apt-get update to enable the system to find newer pacakges. If all seemed to go well but it just doesn't work, you can check to see that the server is running with the following command:

$ sudo service nginx status

This may report that nginx is running or not. You could try restarting it with the command:

$ sudo service nginx restart

If this doesn't fix the problem then the best option is to search the web for possible solutions - this is reasonably effective if you have an error message generated at some point in the process. Search for the text of the error message - you are probably not alone in having this problem.

Shared Folders

A useful feature of VirtualBox is the ability to share folders between the host operating system (your laptop) and the VM. This means that you can have the code of your Python application in a folder on your laptop but then have the same directory available inside your VM. This saves having to copy your code into the VM every time you want to test it. You can edit in your favourite editor on your laptop and run the code from inside the VM.

To achieve this we need to install what are called "Guest Additions" to the target operating system. These are some extensions to the Linux kernel that allow it to coordinate with the VirtualBox subsystem. They also help with integrating the mouse and cursor and copying/pasting between the host system and the VM. To do this take the following steps:

$ sudo apt-get install virtualbox-guest-utils

The next step is to set up a shared folder via the VirtualBox application. From the menu select Devices and Shared Folders then Shared Folder Settings.... In the settings pane create a new shared folder via the + icon on the right. Enter "sf_share" as the folder name and select the directory containing your application source code for the folder path. Make sure Auto Mount is checked and click Ok.

Another small change is to add our username on the VM to the special group vboxsf so that we can get access to the shared folder contents.

$ sudo adduser webdev vboxsf

To have this all take effect, we need to reboot the virtual machine:

$ sudo reboot

Now, when you login to your machine you should be able to see the contents of the folder on your host machine under /media/sf_share, eg. using the ls command:

$ ls /media/sf_share

We can now move on to configuring the network on the VM in preparation for getting our web application running.

Network Connection

The virtual machine is running inside a simulated environment where system resources are presented to it through an emulation layer. By default the VM you created will use Network Address Translation (NAT) to connect its network to that of the host machine. This is the same mechanism that your home router uses to allow you to share one IP address between all of the machines on your home network. This works well to allow the VM to connect to the outside network since traffic is routed through the host machine's network connection automatically.

The main reason for setting up this VM is to allow us to run a web server on the machine to test our web application in a realistic server environemnt. To make this work we need to be able to access the network ports on the VM from the host machine. By default, the VM doesn't have an IP address that is visible from the host. The easiest way to get network access to the machine is to set up a port forwarding rule on the VM. This will connect a port on the VM with a port on the host.

To achieve this, while your VM is not running, look at the settings of your VM in VirtualBox. Select the Networking tab and click on the Advanced button, you should then see a Port Forwarding button. Clicking this shows an interface that allows you to enter a new mapping. Here you will enter a new rule to connect port 80 on the VM to a free port on the host machine, eg:

NameProtocol Host IPHost Port Guest IPGuest Port

This rule will forward traffic form port 80 on the VM to port 8500 on the host machine's IP address (8500 is just an unused port number). This means that the nginx web server that we configured to listen to port 80 will be accessible via the url on the host machine.

The same method could be used to set up rules for other ports. If you want to be able to use ssh to connect to the VM as you would a remote machine you can connect the ssh port (22) to a free port (eg. 2222) on the host and then use an ssh client (e.g. Putty on Windows or the ssh command on Mac) to connect to Accessing your VM using ssh is a good idea because it will familiarise you with the way that you would access a remote server. The interface is the same command line prompt but you will be typing commands into a terminal window (or a Putty window) on your host machine rather than into the VirtualBox emulator window.

Serving a Python Application

The overall goal of this chapter is to show how to configure a Linux server to run a Python web application in a way that mirrors a real-world deployment. So far we have a running nginx web server and we're able to connect to it from the host machine. The server is configured to serve static pages; the next task is to get the Python web application to run inside the VM, we will then connect it to the nginx server to complete the task.

Install Bottle

Python version 3 is installed by default in the Ubuntu system but we need to install the Bottle module with the command:

$ sudo apt-get install python3-bottle

(note that you could also install bottle using the Python package manager pip, on Ubuntu, using apt-get is a good idea because it can also be used to upgrade packages easily as security patches are released).

A Sample Application

As a sample application for deployment I will use a version of the AJAX list maker project from chapter on AJAX. This makes use of a simple SQLite database and has a few resources that are served as static files (Javascript, stylesheet and an image). You can download these here:

If you are following along with this exercise you could download these files and copy them to a the shared folder that you set up earlier on your machine or choose a project of your own to deploy. Be sure to get the directory structure right for these files with the views and static files in a subdirectory relative to the two Python files. Test the application by running it as usual through PyCharm (or however you usually run your Python applications).

Running the Application

Inside the VM we can now run the Python application. The easiest way to do this is to change our working directory to the shared folder (/mnt/sf_share) and run the application from the command line using the Python interpreter. This can be done as follows:

$ cd /media/sf_share
$ python3

You should see the familiar output of the Bottle development server indicating that it is listening on port 8080 for HTTP traffic:

$ python3
Bottle v0.12.8 server starting up (using WSGIRefServer(restart=True))...
Listening on
Hit Ctrl-C to quit.

If you get this message then it looks like the application is working but again we face the problem that we can't test it. Even worse than with nginx, we can't even use curl to test it because it's taken over the command line - we can't run commands while it is running the server. To get around this we will run the server as a background process which means that it will run but will not take over the command line. To do this we do two things on the command line. The first is to redirect the output that the server produces to a file; this is done by redirecting the output to the file web.log using the &> directive. The second is to indicate that we would like to run the process in the background by adding & to the end of the command line.

$ python3 &> web.log &
[1] 1204

The output produced by the command is in two parts, the first number in square brackets indicates that this is the first background process I have running in this shell. The second is the system process id number. Take note of these as we'll use them later to kill the server process.

We can now use curl once again to test that the server is working. This time the server is listening on port 8080 so the command is:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/

You should see some HTML output if all is working well. If you are running the application linked above, you could also try the /likes URL which returns a JSON list of the current set of likes:

$ curl http://localhost:8080/likes

Once we have verified that this works we can halt the server by stopping the python process. To do this we need the numbers that were printed out when we ran the server earlier. The easiest option is to use the first number, which is usually 1 if you are just running one server process. We use the kill command to send a SIGINT interrupt signal to the process:

$ kill -SIGINT %1

The alternative is to use the process number:

$ kill -SIGINT 1204

The Bottle server we are running here is not meant for a real deployment, it is only intended as a development server for very lightweight use. It can only cope with one request at a time and so would fail under any kind of load from the web. In a real production situation you would use a real application server such as gunicorn or uWSGI. Both of these are Python specific application servers that can run your Bottle application in a way that is more robust and able to handle real traffic. For example, they will run more than one worker thread to handle multiple requests at once. You should experiment with these servers to learn more about a complete Python application deployment environment.

Both should have the effect of stopping the process and printing a message to that effect. Now that the process is stopped we can examine the log file web.log that should contain the output of the server when we made the requests. Use the cat command to show the file contents:

$ cat web.log
Bottle v0.12.7 server starting up (using WSGIRefServer(restart=True))...
Listening on
Hit Ctrl-C to quit. - - [25/May/2016 02:00:32] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 692 - - [25/May/2016 02:00:35] "GET /likes HTTP/1.1" 200 36
/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/ ResourceWar...

(The last line is just an error message generated when we stopped the server.)

At the end of this section, we now have a running web application on the VM that is listening to port 8080 and serving pages. However this isn't connected to the outside world since we only connected the real HTTP port (80) to our local network. We have the nginx server running and listening to port 80 but only serving static files. The next part of the puzzle is to connect these two together.

Note that nginx can't directly run Python programs so we can't run our application directly. nginx will act as a proxy server, accepting requests on port 80 from the outside world and forwarding them to our running Python server on port 8080.

nginx Configuration

nginx is a web server but is particularly focussed on providing a front-end server that can efficiently accept requests and forward them to one or more back-end services. This is known as a reverse proxy and is one of the ways of making web services more robust and able to handle larger volumes of traffic. We will configure nginx here to pass requests on to our Python web application listening on port 8080.

The nginx configuration is held in the directory /etc/nginx/ (you will find the configuration of most services on your Linux server in the /etc directory). We will look at the configuration found in /etc/nginx/sites-available/default which is the default configuration that comes with the package. The default configuration contains a lot of comments but the core configuration is as follows:

server {
        listen 80 default_server;
        listen [::]:80 default_server;

        root /var/www/html;

        # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP
        index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;

        server_name _;

        location / {
                # First attempt to serve request as file, then
                # as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
                try_files $uri $uri/ =404;

In this configuration, the server is told to listen to the default port 80 and serve static files from the directory /var/www/html. The location part defines the handling of all URLs starting with /, in this case serving static files or directory listings.

Instead of this configuration we want to have all requests for URLs starting with / forwarded to our Python web application listening on port 8080. This is done with the proxy_pass directive as follows:

server {
	listen 80 default_server;
	listen [::]:80 default_server;

	root /var/www/html;

	server_name _;

	location / {
		proxy_pass http://localhost:8080;

To create this configuration you need to modify the /etc/nginx/sites-available/default file. The easy way to do this is to save the above text in a file in your shared directory and then inside the VM, copy the file to the nginx directory:

$ sudo cp /media/sf_share/default /etc/nginx/sites-available/default

We need to use sudo here because ordinary users are not allowed to modify these configuration files.

We also need to make sure that the file has the permissions to be read by any user. To ensure this, we can use sudo chmod a+r /etc/nginx/sites-available/default, which means "enable read permission to all users". You can then check that the permissions are correct by typing ls -l /etc/nginx/sites-available/default and observe the result. There should be three r on the left-hand side of the listing of the file:

total 4
-rwxr-xr-- 1 root root 163 May 27 10:28 default

The above example also says that the file can be written by the root (the first w) and can be executed by the user root and the user group associated with the root (the two x).

The alternative way to modify the configuration is to use an editor on the VM itself. The standard text editor on a Linux server is vi and most people will find it very confusing. However, if you are going to be working with remote servers it is a good idea to have at least a basic familiarity with vi to allow you to make quick changes to files. There are a number of tutorials on the web that will help you learn about vi, e.g. from Gentoo, from WikiBooks, from IBM.

Once the new version of the configuration file is in place we need to restart the server configuration to have it take effect. Do this with the following command:

$ sudo service nginx restart

To test this setup we can again use curl from inside the VM to access the pages served by nginx:

$ curl http://localhost/

This should show the output generated by the Python application (assuming it is still running in the background as established above). If this doesn't work, check that the Python process is still running (use curl again to access the server on port 8080). Look at any error messages that you get when you get the pages with curl. You can also see error messages in the nginx logs which are stored in /var/log/nginx/. You can look at the contents of these files with the more program, e.g.:

$ more /var/log/nginx/access.log
$ more /var/log/nginx/error.log

We are now ready to try to access our application from outside the VM. If the network is configured for port forwarding as discussed above, the nginx web server should be available at http://localhost:8500 from the host machine (your laptop). If this works then give a little cheer! If not, check that your network port forwarding configuration is correct.

Serving Static Files with nginx

One final modification we can make to the configuration is to have nginx take over the job of serving static files for our application. Static files by definition do not change and there is no need to have our Python script involved in serving them. nginx is good at serving static content and can do it more efficiently that our Python server.

To enable this, we need to configure the URL /static to be served directly through nginx, bypassing the Python server. Add the following lines to the configuration after the existing location clause:

location /static {
	root /media/sf_share;

Since the files we want the server to access are stored on the shared folder, we need to give it permission to do so. By default these files are only readable by members of the vboxsf group, so we need to add the user www-data to this group (the nginx server runs as this user).

$ sudo adduser www-data vboxsf

Restart the server again and check that the application is still working - in particular that the static resources (stylesheet, javascript and image files) are being served.


This chapter has walked through the configuration of a Virtual Machine based Linux web server for running a simple Python web application. The example has been made as simple as possible but is typical of a real configuration that might be used to serve a small web application. Part of the motivation for this chapter is to introduce web development students to the Unix command line and the basics of working with Unix applications. The interested student should take this as a starting point and explore further to learn to master the Unix environment.

There are still a few things to do before the configuration described above is a realistic one. I'll note some here for completeness although I won't go into detail.