AJAX stands for Asynchronous Javascript and XML. It is a simple coding technique that allows Javascript code to make HTTP requests but gives rise to an important architectural style for building web applications. AJAX allows the developer to break the normal cycle of web behaviour where each action results in the delivery of a whole HTML page. Instead, an AJAX request can be made to return just enough data to update the current page to a new state. This changes the web from a page based application to one where a user interface presented in a web browser carries out transactions on a remote server. As such, AJAX has made a significant difference to the way that web applications are written and to the user experience of the web.

AJAX refers to two main technologies: Javascript and XML. Javascript is the scripting language implemented in the browser that is used to make requests and update the page being viewed. XML is the language used to exchange data between the server and the browser client. However, AJAX techniques can be used with other data formats and it is now much more common to use JSON for data interchange than XML. The AJAX acronym is so well known now that changing it to AJAJ is unlikely even if it better reflects current practice.

The other keyword in AJAX is Asynchronous which means that the requests that are sent by Javascript do not block the further execution of the script. The request is sent and is executed in the background. When the response is returned by the server, the system calls a function that has been registered as a callback at the time of the request. The callback function handles the response and updates the page. This asynchronous behaviour means that the main script can continue to process user interaction while the request is in progress, meaning that the application always feels like it is 'live' to the user.

A common web transaction is submitting a form to update some piece of information presented in a page. For example, adding a new message to a conversation in a forum. In the regular web context the HTML page is delivered containing the current conversation and a form to submit a new message. The user enters the message and submits the form. The server stores the new message and returns a new page with all of the old messages plus this new one. Clearly there is redundancy here since the old messages are sent multiple times to the client. Using AJAX, the form is submitted via a Javascript request, the response comes back as a JSON (or XML) and is inserted into the current page. The old messages don't need to be re-sent and so the response appears much faster and less network bandwidth is used.

This change makes web applications much more similar to desktop applications in the way that they update the display and transfer information. It allows web applications to be more responsive and to continue to react to user input due to the asynchronous nature of the request. This has allowed the web to be used as a platform for developing versions of traditional desktop applications such as mail readers, word processors and spreadsheets. The web has become a cross-platform implementation option for developing sophisticated applications.

# The Role of JavaScript

Recall that JavaScript can be used to change the contents of HTML elements. The innerHTML property can be used to set or retrieve the HTML between the start and end tags of an object. Here's a simple example:

    <title>Demo: Change Unit</title>

    <script type='text/javascript'>
    function change_unit() {
        document.getElementById('strong_text').innerHTML = 'COMP348';

    <p>Welcome to <strong id='strong_text'>COMP249</strong></p>
    <input type='button' onclick='change_unit()' value='Change Unit'/>

In contrast to the script above, in an AJAX script, the data that is inserted into the page comes from a request sent back to the server. This is enabled by the XMLHttpRequest object in Javascript which embodies an HTTP request and allows the script to process the response to the request without blocking the rest of the browser interface. XMLHttpRequest was first introduced in Internet Explorer 5 and later copied in an incompatible way by Mozilla and other browsers. The Mozilla implementation became more widely used and is now standard in all modern browsers, however for code to work in older versions of Internet Explorer you will usually use the following code to create a new request object:

  function makeRequest() {
    if (window.XMLHttpRequest) { // Mozilla, Safari, ...
      let httpRequest = new XMLHttpRequest();
    } else if (window.ActiveXObject) { // IE
      try {
        let httpRequest = new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP");
      catch (e) {
        try {
         let httpRequest = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
        catch (e) {}
    return httpRequest;

This function creates a new request object and returns it. Our script can then use this request object by providing a URL, a payload (for a POST request) and a callback function. The callback function will be called when the request returns and will be passed the response that comes back. Here is an example callback function:

httpRequest.onreadystatechange = function() {
        if (this.readyState === 4) {
            if (this.status === 200) {
                text = this.responseText;

This callback function just pops up an alert box with the text returned from the request. The request object is accessed via the Javascript this variable - the callback function is actually a method of the request object and this refers to the current instance as it does in Java or C++. The first thing the function does is to check the this.readyState which is used to indicate the status of the request. A value of 4 means that the request is complete (other values tell you that the request is in different stages of progress); this indicates that this callback function might be called before things are really done so we first check that all is well and only then try to process the result. We then check this.status to make sure that the request succeeded. This means that we don't want to do anything if we got a 404 or other error response - although we could carry out a different action in this case. this.responseText is the verbatim content of the response that the server sends back. This sample callback function uses this to create an alert box.

The details of what will happen when the request has returned are now set up but we've not yet made the request. To do that we need to set the URL and request method and then invoke the request. Here's an example of how to do that:

    httpRequest.open('GET', '/likes');

Only when the send method is called is the request actually made. The main Javascript thread then continues (to handle any other user input) and the callback function will be called when the response returns.

Here is a summary of the properties of the XMLHttpRequest object including a few that we've not yet mentioned.

Property Description
onreadystatechange Reference to an event handler function/method that is called on every state change in the request.
readyState The state of the object: 0 (uninitialized) 1 (loading) 2 (loaded) 3 (interactive) 4 (complete)
responseText the response as a string
responseXML the response as an XML DOM object or null if the response was not XML
status The response status code (eg. 200)
statusText The response status text (eg. "OK")

# XML and JSON Data

Two properties of the XMLHttpRequest object may contain data: responseXML stores a DOM structured object of any XML data; responseText stores the data as one complete string. As an example of handling XML data, assume that the response is an XML document containing the following:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
  <name>Bob Bobalooba</name>
  <dance>The Boogaloo</dance>

The responseXML property of the response is a standard DOM object so we can use the DOM methods to access the data. Here's example code to get the name value from this document:

// get the first 'name' tag
let nameNode = response.responseXML.getElementsByTagName("name")[0]
// get the first child (text) node
let nameTextNode = nameNode.childNodes[0]
// get the text content
let name = nextTextNode.nodeValue

Having extracted the data from the XML document we could now update the page or carry out whatever user action we wanted following the request.

Note how XMLHttpRequest makes handling an XML response easy - this is what it was designed to do and at the time it was put forward, the expectation was that XML would be used in the response. We are now more commonly using JSON in the response, that needs a little more work but is overall a lot easier to handle.

There is no built in support for JSON responses but it is easy to parse the responseText that is returned into a Javascript object or list. While we could just use the eval function in Javascript to evaluate the JSON text as code, it is safer to use the JSON parser package which is not vulnerable if the JSON contains some executable code as well as data. To repeat the earlier example from XML, here is a JSON representation of that data:

    'name': 'Bob Bobalooba',
    'dance': 'The Boogaloo'

To parse this we can use the built in JSON object as follows:

let result = JSON.parse(this.responseText);
let name = result.name;
let dance = result.dance;

You can see from this code why developers prefer JSON to XML for writing web scripts, there is no overhead to find the relevant bits of information in the XML DOM, we just access the Javascript object that is constructed. Add to this the faster parsing speed for JSON vs. XML and it is clear why JSON is preferred in most applications.

# AJAX in jQuery

jQuery is a Javascript library that makes many common Javascript tasks easier to express. jQuery has support for AJAX requests that make the common cases a lot clearer in code. The code for the previous example to make a request to the /likes endpoint and handle the returned JSON data would look like this:

    url: '/likes',
    success: {function(data) {

The $.get function implements the common case of sending a GET request and takes an object parameter that has properties defining the URL to request and a function to call when the request returns. This success function is called with the data that was returned and if this data was in JSON format, we can immediately make use of it (if the data was XML we can also handle it in a similar way to the example above).

jQuery also provides a $.post function to make a POST request or the more general $.ajax function that can send any kind of request with the appropriate configuration. For example, to send a POST request with two form variables:

    url: '/comment',
    data: {
            'user': 'Steve',
            'message': 'Hello World!'
    success: function(data) {
        console.log("post succeeded")

To give a more complete example, consider an application that wants to have users register interest in something, so it includes the following form in the page:

<form id="registerform">
    <input name="name" type="text" required>
    <input name="email" type="email" required>
    <input type="submit">

Rather than have the form submitted in the normal way, which would result in a page reload, the application will intercept the submit event and submit the form data via an AJAX POST request. When the request returns, the page will be updated with a message that is in the response.

The following code uses jQuery to bind to the submit event. In the event handler we first get the values of the input fields in the form, then construct a POST request using jQuery. The data in the request is built from the form inputs. The success handler for the request is a function which receives the response and updates the page - in this case assuming that the server returns a JSON data structure containing a message to be displayed to the user.

    /* bind to the submit event on the form */
        /* get the form input values */
        let name = $(this).children("input[name='name']").val()
        let email = $(this).children("input[name='email']").val()
        /* send a post request */
            url: 'http://example.org/register',  /* target of POST request */
            data: {
                name: name,
                email: email
            success: function(data) {
                /* assume data in response is a message to show the user */
                $("#usermessage").innerHTML = data.message;
        /* prevent the normal submission of the form */

jQuery makes writing AJAX based applications a lot simpler than the raw Javascript versions. In addition, the ability to easily bind to elements and get data from the form or other parts of the page makes jQuery code relatively clear.

# AJAX Application Architecture

The architecture of applications we have dealt with up to now has been based on delivering new pages for each transaction that is carried out by the user. The page is constructed on the server via a template and sent back to the client. If we want to add a new message to a list, the user sends a form, we add it to the database and redirect to the main page; when the main page is requested we query the database and construct a new page with the new message.

AJAX enables a different architecture. We can deliver a single starting page containing no data but with Javascript code to query the server and populate the page with messages. Submitting a new message can be done via an AJAX call which could return the additional content that needs to be added to the page (or a full list of messages if new ones might have been added elsewhere). Following the AJAX call the page can be updated with the new information. In this model we only ever deliver one HTML page to the client, the rest of the data and interaction is done via AJAX requests.

The AJAX model can be a lot more efficient and responsive than the older page based model. It can avoid redundancy since the data does not need to be re-sent for every page refresh and all of the HTML decoration around the data only needs to be sent once.

If we look at the requirements for this kind of architecture it meshes very well with the kind of Web API that we discussed in an earlier chapter. We want to be able to request data as JSON so that we can update the page. We want to be able to submit requests from Javascript and get JSON responses. All of this is provided by the kind of Web API discussed earlier.

So, in implementing an AJAX application we can have well delineated client-server architecture where the server implements an HTTP based API returning JSON and the client is written in Javascript hosted in a single HTML page.

This architecture is also well suited for adaption to different front-ends for different purposes. We've already seen that the HTTP API can be used to interface Python scripts to web data and this use of HTML/Javascript clients is a second use case. A third and very important use case is the mobile application. A mobile app can use a Web API to interact with a transactional data store; the app might be implemented as a native application or a mobile web application -- this is just a variation on our HTML/Javascript client with a design that is suited to the mobile device.

This kind of design is now embodied in a new kind of service provider sometimes called Backend as a Service (BaaS or sometimes Mobile Backend as a Service due to its popularity for mobile development). These services provide the basic CRUD operations on a database via an HTTP JSON API that can be used from your web or mobile application.