# A View of HTML

Rather than being a chapter that will teach you the HTML language this will be a chapter about the language, how it works, why it has the structures it does and what you should and shouldn't do with it.

Most people will know some HTML by now (assuming you've been studying computing for a while or have a general interest in the web). My task here is not to teach you HTML or act as a reference for the language, there are plenty of resources around that will do this. Some examples are:

  • w3schools HTML tutorial w3schools is one of the most widely used tutorial and reference sites on the web for HTML and other web technologies.
  • Learn HTML from the Mozilla Developer Network, the organisation that produces the Firefox browser. This page has pointers to a number of HTML tutorials and resources.

# About HTML

HTML is a markup language, which is a formal language used to add encode structured documents, often by mixing formal elements and plain text. Another example is the LaTeX language used to typeset scientific and technical documents. Here's a fragment of LaTeX that shows the use of commands preceded by a backslash character and curly braces to enclose text:

\subsubsection*{Constraints on tiers: sequence and hierarchy}

Constraints are perhaps best illustrated in ELAN which has 
perhaps the most elaborate set of alternate sequential and 
hierarchical constraints within and between tiers called 
the \emph{Linguistic Type Stereotype} \cite{elan-manual}:

   \item None - the 'parent' tier has no restrictions 
       except segments cannot overlap
   \item  Time subdivision - annotation in parent can be 
       subdivided in the child tier with segments linked 
       to time intervals, no time gaps allowed

These commands are interpreted by the LaTeX system which uses then to produce nicely typeset PDF output. Markup can also be used to identify regions of text for analysis. Here's an example from a language corpus used to study human interaction:

 <$A> <#\><[>Oh no <#\>The diving</[></{> I'm sorry <#\>Yeah <#\>Diving
 <$B> <#\>PADI certificate
 <$A> <#\>What d'they call diving <#\>It's um<,,>
 <$B> <#\>Yeah <#\>There's a<,> P A D I PADI
 <$A> <#\>Oh is there
 <$B> <#\>And it's the Professional Aquatic Divers Institute and
you can either get<,> you know a certificate or a diploma or
 <$A> <#\>Different grades
 <$B> <#\>Yeah

In this example, special character sequences are used to mark things like speaker turns, pauses, phrases and overlapping speech. This markup can be used to help analyse the language and find examples of certain linguistic phenomena (for example, find me examples of 'you know' and show me what the next person says in response).

HTML is the Hypertext Markup Language, meaning that it is designed to encode hypertext documents - that is, documents containing links to other documents on the World Wide Web. In fact, the hyperlink is just a small part of HTML and much more interesting are all the other parts of the language that allows us to produce useful documents for the web.

HTML is based on an earlier standard called SGML (Standard Generalised Markup language) which had a successor called XML (eXtensible Markup Language). SGML and XML are both languages for defining markup languages, that is they define the syntax of a markup language but allow you to develop your own language for a specific purpose. The syntax is the angle brackets containing start and end tags <p> and </p> that you will be familiar with (and a number of other rules). SGML and XML based languages all use this same syntax but allow the language designer to make up their own tags and define how they should be used together. HTML was designed originally by Tim Berners-Lee and later by the W3C as a language to encode pages of content for the web.

Importantly, HTML is a markup language not a programming language. The job of a markup language is to record the structure of a document; that structure can then be interpreted by a program to generate some output. A programming language contains instructions that will be executed (or interpreted) to carry out some action or compute some result.

# Versions of HTML

The first version of HTML was developed by Tim Berners-Lee as part of his World Wide Web project along with the HTTP protocol and the URL syntax. At first it was a very simple language for encoding articles and so had tags for headings, paragraphs, lists etc. Later, the language evolved to encompas new features in the browser such as the ability to display images, tables and modify the font that text was displayed in. The evolution of HTML has been quite gradual and at times part of intense competition between browser vendors (look up the Browser Wars to get the full story). The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and later the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) tried to standardise the language but it took some time for industry practice to align with the W3C standards. Luckily now we are in a period of relative stability where the standards process aligns well with what the major browsers are able to understand.

A version of HTML is defined by a Document Type Definintion (DTD) - a formal definition of the allowed tags and attributes and the allowed structure of an HTML document. The DTD says that you can have a <p> tag and that it can contain a <strong> tag but that a <li> has to be inside a <ul> or <ol> tag and so on. If a document conforms to the DTD (follows the rules) we say that it is valid, if it contains errors such as having an unknown tag or a tag in the wrong place it is invalid.

Early versions of HTML were subject to a lot of change and it wasn't until HTML version 4.0.1, released in 1999 that there was a bit of stability in the language and consensus about what should be included and what should be left out. Before then, HTML had grown to contain a lot of visual markup that had been developed by the browser vendors (Netscape and Microsoft) to try to make their browser look better than the competition. An example is the <font> tag introduced by Microsoft (and copied by Netscape) which could change the font used to render some text. By the time HTML 4.01 was published, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) were becoming more widely adopted and the use of markup that explicitly referred to the visual appearance of the content was discouraged.

HTML 4.0.1 is still the latest version of the official W3C standard although there have been a large number of changes implemented by the browser vendors since the time it was released.

In 1997 the XML standard was introduced. XML was intended to generalise the use of markup on the web and allow developers to design thier own markup languages for specific purposes. XML is an evolution of the earlier SGML standard on which HTML had been based; it simplified the syntax rules a lot and made it easier to write parsers for XML. One of the early applications of XML was to develop XHTML - a version of HTML converted to adhere to the XML standard. XHTML 1.0 retained almost all of the tags in HTML 4.0.1 but introduced the constraints of XML. For example in an XML document every opening tag must have a corresponding close tag; in HTML, many close tags are optional (e.g. you can leave out the closing <p> tag for a paragraph since it is implied by the next opening <p> tag) and many tags never have a close tag because they never contain any text (e.g. <img> or <br>). In XHTML then, paragraphs always require a close tag and empty tags are written with the new XML syntax: <br />.

One of the motivations for introducing XHTML was to try to encourage web developers to adhere more closely to the published standards. The web had grown up with a culture of view-source where people would learn how to encode web pages by looking at the source HTML of other web pages rather than by reading the standard. They would then write their own pages and if they looked ok in the browser, they would publish them. To cope with the amount of badly formed HTML content on the web, the browser vendors built thier HTML parsers to be very forgiving. If you put a paragraph inside an image tag or a header inside a paragraph it would have a go at rendering the content. As a consequence, very few web publishers cared about generating proper HTML and anyone who wanted to parse web content had to make very few assumptions about HTML structure.

Around this time there was a move towards having more automated clients consuming web content. One group was the search engine developers who were just interested in the textual content of pages but other groups were trying to glean real data from the web. For example, price comparison services were starting up which tried to extract pricing information from store listings. Other services might try to find event information from web pages. All of these services needed to parse the HTML structure and had problems when the HTML was badly structured; this became known as Tag Soup since one could not rely on proper HTML structure it was just treated as an unstructured collection of tagged text. Permissive parsers such as Beautiful Soup (Python) and Tagsoup (Java) were developed to cope with the messy markup and give the developer as much detail as possible from the page.


The most recent version of HTML is HTML5 - note the name with no spaces which is quite different to earlier versions. HTML5 was a big change in the way that the standard was put together and followed a long break in the development of standards for HTML: HTML 4.0.1 was last updated in 2000, HTML5 was finally released in 2012. The goal of HTML5 was to standardise current practice in browsers, rather than to define new structures or limit what was possible. The W3C worked with the browser developers to agree on standards for new technologies that they had introduced. For example, being able to include audio and video elements in HTML had been possible in some browsers; HTML5 defined a standard for these that all browser vendors could agree on and implement.